Muhammad Arief Wibowo, Ivonne M Radjawane, Ibnu Sofian


The mechanism of temporary upwelling and downwelling in the southern coast off Makassar Strait, Indonesia is determined not only by the wind-driven coastal during southeast monsoon (SEM) and northwest monsoon (NWM) but also by meeting of two current systems based on previous research. During SEM, water mass of the Flores Sea in eastern area meets the throughflow water coming from northern of Makassar Strait and flow together to Java Sea and this causes upwelling occur. But during NWM, water mass of the Java Sea western   area meets the through flow water and flow together to southern cost of Celebes Island and causes downwelling occur.  The first mechanism is well proven but the second one need more investigation.

Twenty years of data result obtained from numerical simulation over the Makassar Strait and adjacent waters are used to describe the seasonal characteristic and mechanism of upwelling in this region. The 3D baroclinic ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System) from Rutgers version was simulated from 1995 to 2014.

The climatological results show the existing of upwelling and downwelling clearly identified by the decreasing or increasing of sea surface temperature ± 2ºC and also increasing or decreasing of surface salinity ±0.5 Psu compared by surrounding waters. The evidence of upwelling starts on June, maximum intensity in August and disappears on September following the easterly wind during southeast monsoon. But downwelling start on   December, maximum intensity in January and disappears on February. The mixed layer depth becomes shallow and there is an uplift water from the thermocline to the surface at the upwelling occur, but when downwelling occur the mixed layer depth becomes deeper. The instability of water column was detected from the Brunt-Väisälä frequency (N2) and Richarson number (Ri). By calculating the vorticity and investigate the current circulation we detect the eddy formation in southern part of the Celebes Island at Java Sea and Flores Sea and suggested due to the meeting of current system. We found the Ekman transport is moving to the southern direction offshore of Celebes Island and produces the upwelling during SEM. But when NWM occur, Ekman transport is moving to the northern direction from offshore to the Celebes Island and produce downwelling.


eddy formation; Ekman transport; Makassar Strait; upwelling; downwelling

Full Text:



Atmadipoera, A.s. and Widyastuti, P. 2014. A Numerical Modeling Study on Upwelling Mechanism in Southern Makassar Starit, Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Trofis, 6, 355-371.

Chang, C.P., Wang, z., MacBride, J., and Liu, C.H. 2004. Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia—Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric, Journal of Climate, 18, 287-301.

Chen, Z. 2014. Coastal Upwelling Study: Observation, Dynamic Analysis and Modelling, ProQuest LLC, USA.

Delpeche, N.C., Soomere, T., and Lilover, M.J. 2010. Diapycnal mixing and internal waves in The Saint John River Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada with a Discussion relative to the Baltic Sea, J. Eng, 16, 157-175.

Gordon, A.L. and Susanto, R. D. 1998. Makassar Strait Transport: Initial estimate based on Arlindo Result, Marine Technology Society journal, 32, 34-45.

Gordon, A.L., Susanto, R. D., and Ffield, A. 1999. Throughflow Within Makassar Strait, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3325-3328.

Gordon, A.L., Susanto, R.D., Ffield, A., Huber, B.A., Pranowo, W., and Wirasantosa, S. 2008. Makassar Strait Throughflow, 2004 to 2006, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L24605.

Grodsky, S.A., Carton, J.A., and McClain, C.R. 2008. Variability of upwelling and chlorophyll in the equatorial Atlantic, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 35.

Hadikusuma. 2006. Diagram T-S-Ch di Selat Makassar, Kaitannya dengan Upwelling Tahun 1999-2004, Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan. Edisi khusus, 223-236.

Illahude, A.G. 1978. On the Factors Affecting the Productivity of the Southern Makassar Strait, Marine Research in Indonesia, 21, 81-107.

Illahude, A.G. and Groves, G.W. 1970. On the Occurence of Upwelling in the Southern Makassar Strait, Marine Research in Indonesia, 21, 81-170.

Inaku, D.F. 2011. Analisis pola Sebaran dan Perkembangan Area Upwelling di Bagian Selatan Perairan Selat Makassar, Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Ismoyo, D.O. and Putri, M.R. 2014. Identifikasi Awal Eddies di Perairan Laut Jawa, Jurnal Oseanologi Indonesia, 1.

Kitade, Y.M. and Yoshida, J. 2003. Distribution of Overturn Induces by Internal Tides and Thorpe Scale in Uvhiura Bay, J. Oceanography, 59, 845-850.

Lidiawati, L. 2014. Dinamika dan variabilitas Upwelling di Perairan Selatan Jawa Timur. Bandung.

Li, Y. and Yang, S. 2010. A Dynamical Index for the East Asian Winter Monsoon, Journal of Climate, 23, 4255-4262.

Miles, J. 1961. On The Stability of Heterogeneous Shear Flows, J. Fluid Mechanics, 10, 496-508.

Myberg, K. and Oleg, A. 2003. Main Upwelling region in The Baltic Sea a Statical Analysis Based on Three-demensional Modelling, Boreal Environment Research, 8, 97-112.

Pennington, J., Mahoney, K.L., Kuwahara, V.S., Kolber, D., Calienes, R., and Chavez, P. 2006. Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review, Progress in Oceanography, , 69, 285-317.

Purwandana, A., Purba, M., and Atmadipoera. 2014. Distibusi percampuran Turbulen di Perairan Selat Alor, Ilmu Kelautan, 19, 43-54.

Putriningsih, A.A.A. 2011. Estimation of Fish Production Around Indonesia Archipelago Using Satellite Data, Postgraduate Program Udayana University, Denpasar, 21-147.

Pu, G., Wendong, F., Zijun, G., Rongyu, C., and Xiaomin, L. 2006. Internal Tide Characteristics Over Northern Douth China Sea Continal Slope, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2, 17-25.

Qiu, B., Mau, M., and Kashino, Y. 1999. Intraseasonal Variability in The Indo-Pacific Throughflow and The Region Surrounding The Indonesia Sea, Journal of Physical oceanography, 29, 1599-1618.

Schiller, A., Wijffels, S.E., Sprintall, J., Molcard, R., and Oke, P.R. 2010. Pathways of Intraseasonal Variability in The Indonesian Throughflow Region, Dynamics of Atmosphere and Ocean, 50, 174-200.

Schwind, J.J.V. 1980. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics For oceanographers., Prentice-Hall, University of California.

Sediadi, A. 2004. Effek Upwelling Terhadap Kelimpahan dan Distribusi Fitoplankton di Perairan Laut Banda dan Sekitarnya, Makara Sains, 2, 43-51.

Setiawan, R.Y. and Kawamura, H. 2011. Summertime Phytoplankton Bloom in The South Sulawesi Sea, IEEE J. SEL. Topics Appl. Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 4, 241-244.

Shinoda, T., Han, W., Metzger, E.J., and Hurlburt, H.E. 2012. Seasonal Variation of the Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 42, 1099-1123.

Sukoraharjo, S.S., Manurung, D., Jaya, I., Pasaribu, B.P., and Gaol, J.P. 2011. Upwelling Prediction by Analyzing Wind Patterns at Makassar Strait, Jurnal Kelautan Nasional, 6, 149-160.

Susanto, R.D., Ffield, A., Gordon, A.L., and Adi, T.R. 2012. Variability of Indonesian Throughflow Within Makassar Strait, 2004- 2009, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C09013.

Susanto, R.D. and Gordon, A.L. 2005. Velocity and Transport of The Makassar Strait Throughflow, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, C01005.

Syahdan, M., Atmadipoera, A.S., Susilo, S.B., and Gaol, J.L. 2014. Variability of Surface Chlorophyll-a in The Makassar Strait-Java Sea, Indonesia, International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 14, 103-116.

Vranes, K. and Gordon, A.L. 2005. Comparision of Indonesian Throughflow Transport Observation, Makassar Strait to Eastern Indian Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L1066.

Wallace, M.I., Meredith, M.P., Brondon, M.A., Sherwin, T.J., Dale, A., and Clarke, A. 2008. On The Charecteristics of Internal Tides and Coastal Upwelling Behavior in Marguerite Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula, Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 2023-2040.

Wyrtki, K. 1961. Physical Oceanography of the Southeast AsianWaters. California: Scripps Institution of Oseanography.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/terubuk.48.1.361-371


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Fakultas Perikanan dan Kelautan, Universitas Riau

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.